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Average flow velocity and flow cross section are required to determine the flow Q. This leads to the general formula:
The flow cross section A is determined by continuously measuring the filling level taking the channel shape as well as the channel dimensions into account.
The flow velocity is determined by measuring the surface velocity.
Radar measures flow by determining the velocities on the water surface. The surface velocities are determined by detecting Radar signals reflected from surface waves. The reflections are evaluated using the known Doppler principle. Utilising additional level measurement and by taking the known channel shape into account it is possible to accurately calculate the flow rate.
Accurate flow measurement requires precise and reliable determination of levels under all hydraulic conditions which is achieved by using 20 mA level sensors. For such cases contactless ultrasonic „i-Series“ sensors are used.